Orange-barred Sulphur (Phoebis philea). Boca Raton, FL, November 20, 2015.

New backyard butterfly: Orange-barred Sulphur

I’ve already mentioned how glad I’ve been to have the Bahama Sennas I put in last spring (Senna mexicana var. chapmanii). They’ve attracted my “everyday” sulphur, Cloudless (Phoebis sennae), a nice Sleepy Orange (Eurema nicippe), and now a new butterfly for the yard (one of the only new insects discovered in this windy, windy November), the Orange-barred Sulphur (Phoebis philea):

Orange-barred Sulphur (Phoebis philea). Boca Raton, FL, November 20, 2015.

Orange-barred Sulphur (Phoebis philea). Boca Raton, FL, November 20, 2015.

As soon as I saw it, I knew it was a different butterfly than any of the ones I’d seen before. Its size alone made it stand out; this is Florida’s largest sulphur butterfly, even larger than the appropriately named Giant Orange Sulphur (P. agarithe). The cloudless sulphurs I see every day, while not exactly shrimpy, look small compared to this hulking giant.

The color also made it stand out. The entire underside (that is, what’s visible when it has its wings closed) was “rusty” orange, and the orange was particularly prominent when it was flying. I managed to capture a moderately nonhorrible image of the hindwing orange area, although it’s nothing to write home an entire blog post about:

Orange-barred Sulphur (Phoebis philea). Boca Raton, FL, November 20, 2015.

Orange-barred Sulphur (Phoebis philea). Boca Raton, FL, November 20, 2015.

The orange at the base of the female’s hindwing is not the “bar” referred to in the name, though. The orange-barred part of the name comes from the male, which has a thick orange “bar” on the forewing (In case you didn’t know, in describing an animal, stripes run vertically, while bars run horizontally.):

Phoebis philea, male. Left: upper side. Right: lower side. Museum specimen, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse. Specimen from French Guiana.

Phoebis philea, male. Left: upper side. Right: lower side. Museum specimen, Musee d’Histoire Naturelle de Toulouse. Specimen from French Guiana. Photo by Didier Descouens.

According to almost all of my books, the orange-barred sulphur colonized Florida from the West Indies in the late 1920s.1 According to Cech and Tudor, it is less migratory than our other sulphurs (Cloudless being the “typical”—or perhaps extreme, rather than typical—migratory sulphur, occurring over a wide range at various times of the year.)

Like most sulphurs, its larval host plant family (what the caterpillars eat) is the sennas in the genus Cassia (as opposed to the sennas in the genus Senna—plants are awesome!).

The caterpillars of the Orange-barred are highly variable green or yellow, but no matter what basal color they have, they have bold markings that make them quite a bit more colorful than the green-with-a-yellow-racing-stripe Cloudless cats:

Orange-barred sulphur caterpillar images from bugguide.net.

Orange-barred sulphur caterpillar images from bugguide.net.

However, I have yet to find one on my property; all of the candidate caterpillars I’ve found have turned out to be early instar cloudless sulphurs; as they grow, they get greener and greener.

Caterpillars of all the sulphurs appear to prefer to eat the flowers, although the leaves will do when there are no flowers present. (And there are rarely flowers present, since there are so many generations of caterpillars, and they all prefer the blossoms, or if those are absent, the buds.)

  1. The only books I have that don’t agree with this account simply don’t mention how long it’ been present in Florida.